1 2, in https, the communication protocol is encrypted using, transport Layer Security (TLS or, formerly, its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).Strictly speaking, https is not a separate protocol, but refers to use of ordinary http over an encrypted SSL/TLS connection.

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Traffic analysis is possible because SSL/TLS encryption changes the contents of traffic, but has minimal impact on the size and timing of traffic.As a consequence, certificate authorities and public key certificates are necessary to verify the relation between the certificate and its owner, as well as to generate, sign, and administer the validity of certificates.